The light and shade in the picture. Lesson for beginners.
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Offer you to familiarize yourself with the key concepts concerning light and shadow in drawing, you need to know for the proper expertise.

So, CHIAROSCURO is the distribution of light and shadow on the surface of objects. It is black and white transitions allow us the space to see the form of objects.

The lighting, as You certainly know, is the NATURAL (solar, lunar light) and ARTIFICIAL (electric light, candles, etc).

Depending on the direction of light rays, light can be CONCENTRATED and DIFFUSED. For example, will be concentrated sunlight and electric light bulb. It is characterized by pronounced napravlennosti.
Ambient lighting is soft, falling from a window light.

CONCENTRATED AND DIFFUSED LIGHT gives to the objects of different nature of light and shade. When the concentrated light of the increase contrasts of light and shadow, they become more distinct. This lighting is best used for the teaching of drawing.
With diffused light, contrast, black and white transitions is very soft and not as expressive emphasize the form.

Drawing various objects, we must consider not only their lightness, but also the physical features of the surface. Different texture objects in different ways, reflect and absorb light. On glossy surfaces we see a minor difference between the illuminated and shaded areas, but we see a bright glare and reflection from other objects in the smooth surface. On the same clay surface will be very well expressed in the light-to-dark transitions, but not so bright will be flashing.

It is necessary to distinguish even concepts such as tone and density.

TONE is the luminosity, which depends on the strength of the lighting.
DENSITY is a dark tone.
And also the flare and a half.
The specular HIGHLIGHT is the bright reflection of light on the surface of the object. The different texture of the surface gives a different flare. Glossy surfaces are bright reflections with sharp edges. Matte surface is more blurred and less bright. There are materials that generally can't have a flare. For example, wood, porous materials, stones.

SEMITONE (or penumbra) is the transition between light and shadow.

Shadows in the picture are divided into private and falling.

OWN SHADOW is the shaded part of the subject.

Drop SHADOW is a shadow cast by the object on the surface or other objects.

The density, shape and size of the shadow depends on many factors:
position of the light source and its distance from the subject
- focus light rays
- form of the subject

The darkest place drop shadows under the subject. But the shadows are never completely black.

SWEETORANGE is the darkest place of his own shadow. The dark (sharp) sweetorange characteristic when the dazzling light, but erased the black and white gradation.

There is another very important concept is the REFLEX.
Reflex is the reflected light (or color) on the subject from the surrounding objects. Reflex looks light spot weak intensity in the field of their own shadow (if the glare is on the shaded side of predmeta). Color reflex can be seen, for example, in the form of a green reflection on the brown vase from the tablecloth.

So, we have briefly analyzed the basic concepts of light and shade, and now consider the distribution patterns of light and shade in the picture.